Federal Elections(ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ)

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Federal Elections(ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ)

Post  burmanone on Tue Mar 10, 2009 12:57 pm

Federal Elections(ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ)


How Federal Elections in Canada Work
A Simple Explanation of a Canadian Federal Election

Ridings and Members of Parliament
Canada is divided into 308 electoral districts or ridings. Voters in each riding elect one member of parliament or MP to send to the House of Commons. The Senate in Canada is not an elected body.


Federal Political Parties
There are 16 registered federal political parties. Three other parties are eligible to register. Each party can nominate one candidate for each riding. During the Canadian federal election in 2006, representatives of only four federal political parties won seats in the House of Commons.


Forming the Government
The party that wins the most ridings in a general federal election is asked by the Governor General to form the government. The leader of that party becomes the Prime Minister of Canada. If the party wins in more than 154 ridings, it will have a majority government, which makes it much easier to get legislation passed in the House of Commons. If the winning party wins 154 seats or fewer, it will form a minority government. In order to get legislation through the House, a minority government usually has to adjust policies to get enough votes from MPs of other parties. A minority government must constantly work to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons in order to stay in power.


The Official Opposition
The political party that wins the second highest number of seats in the House of Commons becomes the Official Opposition.


Canadian National Register of Electors
A Database of Information on Electors for Canadian Federal Elections

The National Register of Electors is a database of basic information on Canadians who are qualified to vote in federal elections in Canada. The information consists of name, sex, date of birth, and address. The National Register of Electors is used to prepare the preliminary list of electors for federal elections.

Information for the National Register is received from:

individual qualified electors
the Canada Revenue Agency
Citizenship and Immigration Canada
provincial and territory registrars of motor vehicles and vital statistics
provincial electoral offices with permanent lists of electors.
Returning officers update the preliminary lists during the revision period of an election. The revision period starts three days after an election writ is issued and ends six days before the election.

Eligible Canadians can vote from outside Canada by applying to register and vote by mail.


Fixed Election Dates Act

Updated: 07/30/07

About the Fixed Election Dates Act:
The Fixed Election Dates Act establishes fixed election dates for Canadian federal elections every four years, except when a government loses a vote on a non-confidence motion, in which case an election would be held immediately.

Introduction of Fixed Election Dates Bill:
May 30, 2006

Official Title:
An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act

Minister Responsible:
Leader of the Government in the House of Commons and Minister responsible for Democratic Reform

Status of Fixed Election Dates Act:
The Fixed Election Dates Bill received Royal Assent on May 3, 2007. It came into force on the same day.

Text of Fixed Election Dates Bill:
Text of Fixed Election Dates Bill (Royal Assent Version)

Summary of Fixed Election Dates Act:
Previous Timing of Federal Elections

In Canada before this act, a federal election had to be called at least every five years. The timing of an election was decided by the Prime Minister. An election was also triggered when the government lost a vote on a non-confidence motion in the House of Commons.

New Timing of Federal Elections

The Fixed Election Dates Act establishes that Canadian federal elections be held every four years on a fixed date, except when the government loses the confidence of the House, in which case an election would be held immediately.

This act sets the fixed federal election date as the third Monday in October four years after election day of the last general election.

The act also sets out the date for the next general election as October 19, 2009, unless the government loses the confidence of the House before then.

The Fixed Election Dates Act gives the Chief Electoral Officer the authority to recommend an alternate election day to the governor in council if it turns out that the election day is a day of cultural or religious significance or if it conflicts with an election day for a municipality or province. The alternate day would be either the Tuesday or the Monday after the Monday that would otherwise be election day.

Advantages of Fixed Election Dates

The Canadian government says there are four major advantages to having a fixed election date for Canadian federal elections:

Fairness - A fixed election date eliminates the advantage given to the government party to call an election when conditions are favourable to that party.

Predictability

Improved Policy Planning

Higher Voter Turnout - Weather is generally reasonable in all parts of Canada in October; students are at school and snow-bird seniors have not yet left for the south; all voters are better able to plan.



Political Contributions Reform in Canada
Changes to Rules for Canadian Federal Political Contributions

Dateline: 01/12/07

The Federal Accountability Act which received Royal Assent on December 12, 2006 reforms the financing of political parties and candidates in Canada, changing the rules for political contributions to prevent influence being bought by political donations and to level the playing field for individual contributors.

Reforms to political financing include:

new limits on individual donations to parties and candidates

a ban on contributions from corporations, unions and organizations to parties and candidates

a longer period to prosecute violations under the Canada Elections Act.
Effective January 1, 2007 the following rules for political contributions under the Canada Elections Act come into force.


Who Can Make Political Contributions
You must be a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident of Canada to make a political contribution to a registered political entity.

Corporations, trade unions, associations and groups may not make political contributions.

An employer can give an employee a paid leave of absence during an election period to allow the employee to be a nomination contestant or a candidate without the leave being considered a political contribution.
Limits on Political Contributions for Individuals
The amount an individual may contribute to a registered political party has been reduced to $1,100 a calendar year (adjusted for inflation annually on April 1).

A distinct $1,100 annual limit has been put on the total an individual may contribute to the registered associations, the nomination contestants and the candidates of a registered political party. (The total is adjusted for inflation annually on April 1.)

The amount an individual may contribute to an independent candidate in a particular election has been reduced to $1,100 (adjusted for inflation annually on April 1).

The amount an individual may contribute to a leadership in a particular leadership contest has been reduced to $1,100 (adjusted for inflation annually on April 1).

A nomination contestant or a candidate may make an additional $1000 in total per election to his or her own campaign.

A party leadership contestant may make an additional $1000 contribution in total per contest to his or her own campaign.

Cash contributions of more than $20 to registered political entities have been banned.

You cannot make a political contribution with money, property or services that were given to you for that purpose.
Income Tax Credits for Political Contributions
Tax credits for political contributions are available at the following rates: 75 percent of the first $400; 50 percent of the next $350; and 33 1/3 percent of an amount over $750.

Tax credits are not given for donations to leadership or nomination contestants, or to unregistered parties and their electoral district associations.

Disclosure of Political Contributions
All political contributions of more than $20 must be receipted and reported.

Political contributions of more than $200 made to registered parties, registered electoral district associations, leadership contestants and candidates must be reported to Elections Canada by the recipient and become matters of public record.

Political contributions of more than $200 made to nomination contestants are also reported to Elections Canada and become a matter of public record if the contestant receives contributions of $1,000 or more, or incurs expenses of $1,000 or more.

burmanone

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Government The Ontario Government(အြန္ေတးရီးယိုးျပည္နယ္အစိုးရေရြးေကာက္ပြဲ)

Post  burmanone on Tue Mar 10, 2009 12:58 pm

Ontario holds a general election usually every four or five years. There are three major political parties in Ontario - Liberal Party, New Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party.

During an election campaign, all three major parties normally run candidates in each of the province's 107 electoral districts, ridings or constituencies. Independent candidates can also run. The candidate getting the most votes becomes a Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP), and represents the riding's residents in the Legislative Assembly (House).

There are 107 seats in Ontario's parliament (one for each riding). After a general election, the Lieutenant Governor asks the leader of the party with the most support in the Legislative Assembly to become Premier and form a government.

A party that wins a majority of the seats forms a majority government. A majority government holds power for a maximum of five years, though it can call a general election earlier.

If no party wins a majority of the seats then the party that has the "confidence of the House" or support from members of other parties forms the government. This is called a minority government. Governments, usually minority governments, are defeated when a majority of members, usually Opposition members, vote in the House to express their non-confidence in the government.

The Premier chooses an Executive Council, the members of which are called Ministers, and they form the Cabinet of the Ontario Government. Cabinet develops policies and sets priorities. Cabinet Ministers introduce government legislation for the consideration of the Assembly.

Members of Provincial Parliament from the political parties that do not form the government are called Members of the Opposition. Their parties are called opposition parties. The opposition party with the greatest number of opposition seats is called the Official Opposition. Members not affiliated with a party are known as independent members.

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House of Commons(ေအာက္လႊတ္ေတာ္)

Post  burmanone on Tue Mar 10, 2009 12:59 pm

Role of Canadian Members of Parliament

Responsibilities of Members of Parliament in Canada
There are normally 308 members of parliament in the Canadian House of Commons. They are elected in a general election, which is usually called every four or five years, or in a by-election when a seat in the House of Commons becomes empty due to resignation or death.


Representing Constituents in Parliament
Members of parliament represent the regional and local concerns of the constituents in their ridings (also called electoral districts) in the House of Commons. Members of parliament solve problems for constituents on a wide variety of federal government matters - from checking on individual problems with federal government departments to providing information on federal government programs and policies. Members of parliament also maintain a high profile in their ridings and take part in local events and official functions there.


Making Laws
While it is public servants and cabinet ministers who have direct responsibility for drafting new legislation, members of parliament can influence legislation through debates in the House of Commons and during all-party committee meetings to examine legislation. Even though members of parliament are expected to "toe the party line," both substantive and fine-tuning amendments to legislation are often made at committee stage. Votes on legislation in the House of Commons are usually a formality following party lines, but can be of significant strategic importance during a minority government. Members of parliament can also introduce legislation of their own, called "private members bills," however it is rare that a private members bill passes.


Watchdogs on Government
Canadian members of parliament can influence federal government policy by participating in House of Commons committees which review federal government department activities and spending, as well as legislation. Government members of parliament also raise policy issues in caucus meetings of members of parliament of their own party and can lobby cabinet ministers. Members of parliament in opposition parties use the daily Question Period in the House of Commons to raise issues of concern and bring them to the attention of the public.


Party Supporters
A member of parliament usually supports a political party and plays a role in the operation of the party. A few members of parliament may sit as independents and do not have party responsibilities.


Offices
Members of parliament maintain two offices with corresponding staff - one on Parliament Hill in Ottawa and one in the constituency. Cabinet ministers also maintain an office and staff in the departments for which they are responsible.


Canadian Federal Party Leaders

Learn more about the current party leaders of the major federal political parties in Canada.

Stephen Harper - Prime Minister of Canada
Biography of Prime Minister Stephen Harper who led the Conservatives to a minority government in the 2006 federal election.

Stéphane Dion - Liberal Party Leader
Biography of Stéphane Dion, Leader of the Official Opposition and Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada.
Gilles Duceppe - Bloc Québécois Party Leader
Biography of Gilles Duceppe, Bloc Québécois Party Leader since 1997.
Jack Layton - New Democratic Party Leader
Biography of New Democratic Party leader Jack Layton.
Elizabeth May - Leader of the Green Party of Canada
Environmental activist Elizabeth May became leader of the Green Party of Canada in 2006.
Write to Canadian Federal Party Leaders
Contact information to write or call the leaders of the major federal political parties in Canada.

burmanone

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Canadian Senators(အထက္လႊတ္ေတာ္)

Post  burmanone on Tue Mar 10, 2009 1:04 pm

Role of Canadian Senators
Responsibilities of Senators in Canada

There are usually 105 Senators in the Senate of Canada, the upper chamber of Canada's Parliament. Canadian Senators are appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. Canadian Senators must be at least 30 years old and retire by the age of 75. Senators also must live and own property in the Canadian province or territory which they represent.

Canadian Senators Examine and Revise Legislation
The main role Canadian Senators have is in providing "sober, second thought" on the work done by the House of Commons. All federal legislation must be passed by the Senate as well as the House of Commons. While the Canadian Senate rarely vetoes bills, although it does have the power to do so, Senators do review federal legislation clause by clause in Senate committees and may send a bill back to the House of Commons for amendments. Senate amendments are usually accepted by the House of Commons. The Canadian Senate can also delay the passage of a bill. This is especially effective towards the end of a session of parliament, when a bill can be delayed long enough to prevent it becoming law.

The Canadian Senate can also introduce its own bills, except for "money bills" which impose taxes or spend public money. Senate bills must also be passed in the House of Commons.

Canadian Senators Investigate National Canadian Issues
Canadian Senators also contribute to in-depth studies by Senate committees on public issues such as health care in Canada, illegal drugs, the regulation of the Canadian airline industry and urban Aboriginal youth. The reports from these investigations can lead to changes in federal public policy and legislation. The wide range of experience of Canadian Senators, who include former Canadian provincial premiers, cabinet ministers and business people from many Canadian economic sectors, provides substantial expertise to these investigations. Also, since Senators are not subject to the vagaries of elections, they can track issues over a longer period of time than Members of Parliament.

Senators Represent Regional, Provincial and Minority Interests
Canadian Senate seats are distributed regionally, with 24 Senate seats each for the Maritimes, Ontario, Quebec and Western regions, and another 8 Senate seats for Newfoundland and the territories. Senators meet in regional party caucuses and consider the regional impact of legislation. Senators also often adopt informal constituencies to represent the rights of groups and individuals who may otherwise be overlooked - the young, poor, seniors and veterans, for example.

Canadian Senators Act as Watchdogs on Government
Canadian Senators provide a detailed review of all federal legislation, and the government of the day must always be conscious that a bill must get through the Senate where the "party line" is more flexible than in the House. During the Senate Question Period, Senators also routinely question and challenge the Leader of the Government in the Senate on federal government policies and activities. Canadian Senators can also draw important issues to the attention of Cabinet ministers and the Prime Minister.

Canadian Senators as Party Supporters
A Senator usually supports a political party and may play a role in the operation of the party.



Role of the Speaker of the Senate of Canada
Responsibilities of the Canadian Speaker of the Senate

The Speaker of the Senate of Canada is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister. The appointment is usually for the length of one parliament, which can last up to five years.

The Speaker presides over the business of the Senate, assisted by the Clerk and other table officers.


Maintaining Order in the Senate
The main responsibility of the Speaker of the Senate in Canada is to maintain order and decorum in the Senate Chamber. The Speaker chairs the sittings of the Senate, presides over votes in the Senate, and rules on points of order and questions of privilege raised by senators. The Speaker guides the Senate through its agenda and ensures that senators follow the rules of the Senate. In the case of serious disorder, the Speaker can suspend the sitting of the Senate for up to three hours.

The Speaker of the Senate must be impartial, but at the same time must be sensitive to the mood of the Senate, as rulings by the Speaker of the Senate can be challenged and put to a vote.

The Speaker is assisted by Senate clerks, who give advice on the rules of the Senate. The Senate clerks sit at the table in front of the Speaker's chair in the centre aisle of the Senate chamber.


Diplomacy Role of Speaker of the Senate
Fourth in the official order of precedence for Canada, after the Governor General, the Prime Minister, and the Chief Justice of Canada, the Speaker of the Senate is involved in state visits, and often receives visiting Heads of State and Heads of Governments and their delegations in the Speaker's chambers. The Speaker of the Senate also travels on behalf of the Parliament of Canada and represents the Senate on interparliamentary organizations.


Role of Speaker as a Senator
The Speaker of the Senate maintains responsibilities to his or her constituents as a senator. Like other senators, the Speaker of the Senate represents a province in Canada, and makes representations at regional caucus meetings and to Cabinet Ministers and the Prime Minister on behalf of his or her constituents.

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